The Godfather of South Korea’s Chip Trade

They have been referred to as “Kim’s Mafia.” Kim Choong-Ki himself wouldn’t have put it that approach. But it surely was true what semiconductor engineers in South Korea whispered about his former college students: They have been all over the place.

Beginning within the mid-Nineteen Eighties, as chip manufacturing within the nation accelerated, engineers who had studied underneath Kim at
Korea Superior Institute of Science and Know-how (KAIST) assumed prime posts within the {industry} in addition to coveted positions educating or researching semiconductors at universities and authorities institutes. By the start of the twenty first century, South Korea had turn out to be a dominant energy within the world semiconductor market, assembly greater than 60 p.c of worldwide demand for reminiscence chips alone. Around the globe, lots of Kim’s protégés have been lauded for his or her good success in remodeling the economic system of a nation that had simply began assembling radio units in 1959 and was fabricating outdated reminiscence chips within the early ’80s.

That success might be traced partially to Kim, now an emeritus professor at KAIST. Of common top, with grey hair since his mid-30s, he was the primary professor in South Korea to systematically educate semiconductor engineering. From 1975, when the nation had barely begun producing its first transistors, to 2008, when he retired from educating, Kim educated greater than 100 college students, successfully creating the primary two generations of South Korean semiconductor consultants.

Kim and his former college students and their households have a good time his sixtieth birthday on the summit of South Korea’s Mount Deokyu.Chang Hae-Ja

The Samsung Welfare Basis acknowledged Kim’s affect when it
awarded him its prestigious Ho-Am Prize in 1993 for “constructing a strong basis for Korea’s semiconductor {industry}.” Since then, he has been revered within the South Korean media because the {industry}’s “godfather.” But even at this time, Kim stays largely unknown exterior of South Korea’s chip neighborhood. Who, then, is that this inconspicuous semiconductor “Mafia” boss?

A Begin in Digital camera Chips

Kim Choong-Ki was born in Seoul in 1942, when Korea was a colony of the Japanese Empire. His mom taught elementary faculty; his father, Kim Byung-Woon, was a textile engineer for
Kyungbang, Korea’s iconic producer of yarns and materials. The elder Kim had helped construct the corporate’s first spinning manufacturing unit, and his engineering savvy and consequent renown impressed his son. “He made a each day tour of the manufacturing unit,” the youthful Kim remembers. “He instructed me that he might detect which machines have been in hassle and why, simply by listening to them.” Such classes planted the seed of an ethos that will drive Kim Choong-Ki’s profession—what he got here to name the “engineer’s thoughts.”

Rising up, Kim Choong-Ki was a mannequin South Korean pupil: bookish, obedient, and silent. Though his household pressed him to affix his father within the textile {industry}, he as an alternative selected to pursue electrical engineering. He studied at Seoul Nationwide College after which at Columbia College, in New York Metropolis, the place he earned his doctorate underneath
Edward S. Yang, a specialist in transistor principle. Shortly after, in the summertime of 1970, Fairchild Digital camera and Instrument employed Kim to work in its analysis and improvement laboratory in Palo Alto, Calif.

Kim, proven on the Columbia campus, studied for his Ph.D. on the college underneath Edward S. Yang, a specialist in transistor principle. Chang Hae-Ja

A woman with short grey hair is seated at a table. Behind her stand an older man in a hat and young man.Kim’s mom and father, a famend Korean textile engineer, go to him in Palo Alto, Calif., in 1971.Chang Hae-Ja

Since World Conflict II, Fairchild Digital camera had been the world’s main developer of imaging gear, together with radar cameras, radio compasses, and X-ray machines. In 1957, the corporate launched the division Fairchild Semiconductor to manufacture transistors and built-in circuits from silicon, then an progressive transfer, as most semiconductor gadgets on the time used germanium. The enterprise spawned dozens of merchandise, together with the primary silicon built-in circuit, thus fueling the rise of Silicon Valley. As a newcomer to Fairchild’s R&D lab, Kim was put to work on one in every of these new sorts of chips: the charge-coupled system.

Simply the yr earlier than, in 1969, George E. Smith and Willard Boyle at Bell Laboratories
proposed the thought of the CCD, for which they’d later win a Nobel Prize. But it surely was Kim and his colleagues at Fairchild who realized the primary CCD gadgets that developed into business merchandise extensively utilized in digital pictures, radiography, and astronomy. Kim grew to become so proficient in CCD know-how that different engineers on the firm usually dropped by his workplace on the finish of the day to choose his mind. “Quickly they started to name me Professor CCD,” he remembers.

A young man in a jacket and tie stands in front of a pale brick wall with lettering attached.Kim’s colleagues at Fairchild Semiconductor’s analysis and improvement laboratories referred to as him “Professor CCD.”Chang Hae-Ja

Amongst different innovations, Kim helped develop a
CCD space picture sensor that vastly improved low-light detection and the primary two-phase CCD linear picture sensor—which, he reported, assured “the benefit of use and the top quality of picture copy.” “Fairchild’s—or higher name them Choong-Ki’s—CCDs made doable the large functions in high-resolution cameras,” Columbia’s Yang says. With out these useful gadgets, he provides, “there can be no Nobel Prize for the CCD.”

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Kim’s time at Fairchild remodeled him as a lot because it did digicam know-how. His education in South Korea and at Columbia had primarily emphasised ebook studying and principle. However his expertise at Fairchild solidified his perception, first impressed by his father, {that a} true “engineer’s thoughts” requires sensible talent as a lot as theoretical data. Along with performing experiments, he made a behavior of studying inner technical reviews and memos that he discovered on the firm library, a few of which he later delivered to KAIST and used as educating materials.

At Fairchild, Kim additionally realized methods to talk with and lead different engineers. When he began there, he was soft-spoken and introverted, however his mentors at Fairchild inspired him to precise himself confidently and clearly. Later, the transformed Kim would turn out to be the “loudest-speaking” professor at KAIST, in accordance with a number of fellow school members, they usually say his absence made the entire campus appear quiet.

Kim rose shortly inside Fairchild’s hierarchy. However simply 5 years into his tenure, he returned to South Korea. His beloved father had died, and, because the eldest son, he felt a heavy accountability to look after his widowed mom. Racial discrimination he skilled at Fairchild had additionally harm his delight. Most essential, nevertheless, he had discovered an excellent place to work again dwelling.

Then referred to as KAIS (the “T” was added in 1981), Kim’s new employer was the primary science and know-how college in South Korea and stays one of the prestigious. The South Korean authorities had established the institute in 1971 with financing from america Company for Worldwide Growth and had invited
Frederick E. Terman, the legendary dean of Stanford College’s faculty of engineering and a “father” of Silicon Valley, to attract up the blueprint for its course. Terman careworn that KAIS ought to purpose to “fulfill the wants of Korean {industry} and Korean industrial institutions for extremely educated and progressive specialists, reasonably than so as to add to the world’s retailer of fundamental data.” It was the proper place for Kim to unfold his newfound philosophy of the “engineer’s thoughts.”

South Korea’s Founding Lab

Kim’s laboratory at KAIS attracted scores of formidable grasp’s and doctoral candidates from virtually the second he arrived within the spring of 1975. The first cause for the lab’s recognition was apparent: South Korean college students have been hungry to study semiconductors. The federal government touted the significance of those gadgets, as did electronics corporations like GoldStar and Samsung, which wanted them to fabricate their radios, televisions, microwaves, and watches. However the {industry} had but to mass-produce its personal chips past fundamental built-in circuits similar to CMOS watch chips, largely attributable to an absence of semiconductor specialists. For 20 years, till the mid-Nineteen Nineties, becoming a member of Kim’s lab was basically the one approach for aspiring semiconductor engineers in South Korea to get hands-on coaching; KAIS was the one college within the nation that had in a position lecturers and correct services, together with clear rooms for assembling high-quality chips.

But it surely wasn’t KAIST’s digital monopoly on semiconductor coaching that made Kim a mentor with out peer. He launched a method of educating and of mastering engineering that was new to South Korea. For example, his conviction that an “engineer’s thoughts” requires equal elements principle and software at first puzzled his college students, who regarded engineering as mainly a scholarly self-discipline. Though they have been proficient in arithmetic and effectively learn, most of them had by no means carried out any severe work in design and development.

Subsequently, one of many first classes Kim taught his college students was methods to use their arms. Earlier than they launched into their very own initiatives, he put them to work cleansing the lab, repairing and upgrading gear, and monitoring down mandatory elements. On this approach, they realized methods to remedy issues for themselves and methods to improvise in conditions for which no textbook had ready them. Their view of what it means to be an engineer modified profoundly and completely. Lots of them confess they nonetheless repeat Kim’s dicta to at the present time. For instance: “Don’t select the themes that others have already thrown into the trash can.” And: “Scientists think about
why first, however we engineers should suppose how first.” And: “Unsuitable choice is healthier than gradual choice.”

Kim’s former college students keep in mind him as variety, humorous, nonauthoritarian, meticulous, and hardworking. However in addition they say he was strict and may very well be sizzling tempered and even terrifying, particularly when he thought they have been being lazy or sloppy. Legend has it that a few of his college students entered the lab by way of a ladder from the rooftop to bypass Kim’s workplace. Considered one of his largest grievances was when college students didn’t correctly stability principle and observe. “Make it your self; then we are going to begin a dialogue,” he scolded those that centered an excessive amount of on mental examine. Then again, he stated, “Why don’t you utilize one thing malleable throughout the exhausting nut in your neck?” as a reproach to those that spent an excessive amount of time constructing issues, implying that they need to additionally use their brains.

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Kim influenced not solely his personal college students but in addition numerous others via his openness. He cooperated with and even shared laboratory area with different KAIST professors, and he preferred to go to different departments and universities to provide seminars or just to realize new concepts and views—conduct that was, and nonetheless is, very uncommon in South Korean tutorial tradition. In his autobiography,
Chin Dae-Je, who developed 16-megabit DRAM at Samsung in 1989 and later served as South Korea’s minister of knowledge and know-how, recounts searching for out Kim’s tutelage when Chin was a graduate pupil at Seoul Nationwide College within the mid-Nineteen Seventies. “There was an intense spirit of competitors” between SNU and KAIST, remembers Chin, whose alma matter labeled him a “downside pupil” for learning with a rival professor.

Kim’s collegiality prolonged past academia to {industry} and authorities . Within the early Nineteen Eighties, throughout a sabbatical, he led semiconductor analysis and improvement on the government-funded
Korea Institute of Electronics Know-how, which developed each 32-kilobit and 64-kilobit ROM underneath his directorship. His widespread semiconductor workshops at KAIST impressed GoldStar (LG since 1995), Hyundai Electronics (Hynix since 2001), and Samsung to sponsor their very own coaching packages at KAIST within the Nineteen Nineties. Kim’s shut partnership with these corporations additionally helped launch different pioneering mostly-industry-funded initiatives at KAIST, together with the Heart for Excessive-Efficiency Built-in Techniques and the Built-in-Circuit Design Training Heart, each directed by Kim’s former pupil Kyung Chong-Min. And the semiconductor {industry}, in flip, benefited from the ever extra extremely educated workforce rising from Kim’s orbit.

More than three dozen people stand in in four rows. A bald man is at the center of the front row.Kim [front row, orange tie] additionally served as director of Korea’s Heart for Electro-Optics, a government-sponsored analysis institute shaped to develop applied sciences for thermal imaging, fiber optics, and lasers.Chang Hae-Ja

The Evolution of South Korea’s Semiconductor Trade

Two men in academic robes and mortar caps face the camera. Others in similar dress or in suits appear the background facing in different directions.Chung Jin-Yong [right], a former pupil of Kim [left], developed DRAM for Hynix after graduating from KAIST in 1976.Chang Hae-Ja

Kim’s lab at KAIST developed in parallel with the expansion of the semiconductor sector in South Korea, which might be divided into three intervals. In the course of the first interval, starting within the mid-Sixties, the federal government led the cost by enacting legal guidelines and drawing up plans for {industry} improvement, establishing analysis institutes, and urgent corporations and universities to pay extra consideration to semiconductor know-how. Samsung and different electronics corporations wouldn’t get severe about manufacturing semiconductor gadgets till the early Nineteen Eighties. So when Kim began his lab, virtually a decade prior, he was coaching engineers to satisfy the {industry}’s
future wants.

His first group of scholars labored totally on the design and fabrication of semiconductors utilizing PMOS, NMOS, and CMOS applied sciences that, whereas not innovative by world requirements, have been fairly superior for the South Korea of the time. As a result of there have been few {industry} jobs, many alumni of Kim’s lab took positions at authorities analysis institutes, the place they developed state-of-the-art experimental chips. An exception was Lim Hyung-Kyu, one in every of Kim’s first grasp’s candidates, whom Samsung despatched to check at KAIST in 1976. Lim would go on to guide the event of assorted reminiscence gadgets at Samsung, most significantly NAND flash reminiscence within the Nineteen Nineties.

The second interval began in 1983, when Samsung declared that it will pursue semiconductors aggressively, beginning with DRAM. The transfer drove rival conglomerates similar to Hyundai and GoldStar to do likewise. Because of this, the South Korean chip {industry} quickly expanded. KAIST and different universities supplied the mandatory manpower, and the federal government diminished its function. In Kim’s lab, college students started to discover rising applied sciences—together with polysilicon thin-film transistors (for LCD panels), infrared sensors (for navy use), and fast thermal processing (which elevated effectivity and diminished prices of semiconductor manufacturing)—and revealed their ends in prestigious worldwide journals.

Seven men in academic robes and three others in suits stand shoulder to shoulder.KAIST engineering professors Kim [center, gray robe] and Kwon Younger-Se [right, blue hood] pose with grasp’s graduates in 1982. Chang Hae-Ja

A bespectacled man in a suit smiles while holding a smartphone.Kim’s former grasp’s pupil, Kwon Oh-Hyun, rose to turn out to be vice chairman and CEO of Samsung Electronics. Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Photographs

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KAIST graduates flocked to Samsung, GoldStar/LG, and Hyundai/Hynix. As authorities affect declined, some alums from the primary interval who had labored at authorities analysis institutes additionally took company jobs. On the identical time, increasingly of Kim’s former college students accepted college professorships. After leaving Kim’s lab in 1991, for example, Cho Byung-Jin spent 4 years growing DRAM and flash reminiscence at Hyundai earlier than changing into a star professor on the Nationwide College of Singapore and later at KAIST. Kyung Chong-Min, Kim’s first doctoral candidate, joined KAIST’s school in 1983; by the point he retired in 2018, Kyung had educated extra semiconductor specialists than Kim himself.

In the course of the third interval, from 2000 on, {industry} seized the helm of semiconductor improvement. Academia churned out extra specialists in addition to important analysis, with minimal contribution from authorities. Alumni of Kim’s lab continued to guide semiconductor engineering, a few of them rising to turn out to be high-ranking executives. For instance,
Kwon Oh-Hyun, who acquired his grasp’s diploma from KAIST in 1977, served as CEO at Samsung Electronics for a lot of the 2010s, when the corporate dominated the world market in not solely reminiscence but in addition cell phones, TVs, and residential home equipment.

Different alums performed key roles in semiconductor analysis and improvement. Ha Yong-Min at LG Show mastered TFT-LCD and OLED screens for tablets, pocket book computer systems, and cellphones; Park Sung-Kye, typically referred to as the “treasure of Hynix,” developed a lot of the firm’s reminiscence merchandise. In academia, in the meantime, Kim had turn out to be a mannequin to emulate. Lots of his trainees adopted his strategies and rules in educating and mentoring their very own college students to turn out to be leaders within the area, guaranteeing a gradual provide of extremely expert semiconductor engineers for generations to come back.

Within the spring of 2007, lower than a yr earlier than Kim turned 65—the obligatory retirement age in South Korean academia—KAIST elected him as one in every of its first distinguished professors, thus extending his tenure for all times. In addition to the Ho-Am Prize, he has garnered quite a few different awards over time, together with the Order of Civil Advantage for “excellent meritorious providers…within the curiosity of bettering residents’ welfare and selling nationwide improvement.” And in 2019, he was named a Individual of Distinguished Service to Science and Know-how, one of many nation’s highest honors.

Legend and Legacy

For younger semiconductor engineers in South Korea at this time, Kim Choong-Ki is a legend—the good unsung hero behind their nation’s ascendancy in chip manufacturing. However its dominance on this planet market is now underneath risk. Though South Korea has competed furiously with Taiwan in current many years, its most formidable challenger sooner or later will doubtless be China, whose formidable
Made in China 2025 plan prioritizes semiconductor improvement. Since 2000, the nation has been a significant importer of South Korean chips. However China’s current heavy funding in semiconductors and the supply of extremely educated Chinese language engineers—together with semiconductor specialists educated in america, Japan, and South Korea—implies that Chinese language semiconductor corporations might quickly turn out to be main world opponents.

Compounding the issue, the South Korean authorities has uncared for its function in supporting chip improvement within the twenty first century. Practically 50 years after Kim started educating its first semiconductor engineers, the {industry} once more faces a major workforce scarcity. Consultants estimate that
a number of thousand new engineering specialists are wanted every year, however the nation produces just a few hundred. But regardless of corporations’ pleas for extra employees and universities’ requires insurance policies that advance tutorial schooling and analysis, the federal government has completed little.

Towards the tip of his profession, Kim had turn out to be involved with the restrictions of the type of “engineer’s thoughts” that had taken root in South Korea. “The financial improvement of Korea was depending on reverse engineering and following superior international locations,” he stated in an interview in 1997. That fast-follower method, he added, relied on an academic system that taught college students “methods to learn maps”—to establish a identified product objective and plot a course for reaching it. “And who made the maps? Superior international locations.” He thus concluded, “We now have to alter our academic coverage and educate our college students how to attract maps.”

Kim himself might not have absolutely realized this formidable imaginative and prescient of cultivating a rustic of creative-minded engineers, able to pioneering actually groundbreaking applied sciences which may safe his nation’s management on the world stage. However hopefully his successors have taken his recommendation to coronary heart. The way forward for South Korea depends upon it.

To learn extra, see “Switch of ‘Engineer’s Thoughts’: Kim Choong-Ki and the Semiconductor Trade in South Korea,” Engineering Research 11:2 (2019), 83-108.

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